|This website is the result of my own explorations and learning about
trees & shrubs in Ontario. I have made every effort to ensure the accuracy
of the information presented on this site. If you find an error or wish to
suggest changes, please
site focuses on trees and shrubs in Ontario (Canada). If you are not from
Ontario, don't go away! Many or most of the species featured here occur
elsewhere in North America, and many occur elsewhere in the world.'."\n";
It is my hope that this site will aid both the novice in learning to
identify trees and shrubs, and as well provide a source of information for
naturalists, scientists, landscape restorationists and others. The emphasis
of this site is on visual recognition; hence it is heavy on photographs.
Most of the photographs on this site are my own. If you wish to use any of
read this page.
This site is a growing and changing entity, with new material being added
all the time - but I almost never remove anything. Corrections and
additional information are welcomed at any time. Help me to maintain this as
a valuable and accurate site for everyone to utilise -
email me with suggested changes and
species of tree and shrub in Ontario is featured on its own page. All of the
"species pages" have the same format, as follows. There are two main
sections on a species page. The top section contains factual information
about the species. The lower section contains photographs of various aspects
of the species, along with descriptive comments and additional information.
For an overview of classifying trees and shrubs in Ontario for the
purpose of identifying them,
Some valuable tips are included in notes I made while on tree & shrub ID
walks with others -
The top part of a species page contains the following information:
- Page Heading: The page title has the Common Name I have
chosen to use for this species on this site. The common name used for a
species on this site is not the "right" or "correct" common name - it's
simply the one I have chosen to use to refer to it. You may know this
species by a different Common Name.
The page title also has the Latin Name for the species. For the Latin
Name, I have tried to use the one that is in current use in Ontario for
- Other common names: This lists various alternate Common Names
for the species. I have included every Common Name that I know of. All
of these Common Names are included in the "
- Other Latin names: This lists various alternate Latin Names
for the species. I have included every Latin Name that I know of. All of
these Latin Names are included in the "
- French Name: I have listed the usual French Name for the
species. At present there is no list of French Names of all the species
on this site.
- Family: This is the Family of species to which this species
belongs. Both the common and Latin names are shown. There is a list of
- Distinctive features: This is a quick summary of distinctive
features that are a quick aid in identifying this species, that help to
tell it apart from similar species.
- Similar species: This is a list of species which may appear
to be similar. Please note that a species may be listed here if it is
closely similar or just vaguely similar. If you are more expert in
tree/shrub identification, then you may wonder why certain species are
listed here. Please bear in mind that one of the goals of this website
is to make tree and shrub identification accessible to novices. Thus I
have listed similar species that may possibly be confused with the
species featured on the page.
"Similar species" does not necessarily mean that the species are
related, just that they are somewhat similar in appearance or name.
- Leaves: a description of the leaves. For a list of species on
this site grouped by leaf type,
- Trunk and bark: A description of the trunk and bark of this
species. For some
subshrubs, this may not
be very useful information.
- Height: An indication of the usual height of this species.
vines this is the usual length.
- Flowers: A description of the flowers of this species, and
when they bloom.
- Fruit/Seeds: A description of the fruit and/or seeds of the
species, and when these form and ripen. Also sometimes an indication of
whether they are edible (but see below).
- Habitat: A description of where this species usually grows.
For a list of species on this site grouped by Habitat,
- Edible/Medicinal/Poisonous/Uses: A brief description of the
edible and medicinal uses of the species if applicable, a brief
description of its poisonous properties if applicable, and other uses of
- Trees in Canada (Farrar) page: The page number in this
book where this species appears. This is the main reference book for
trees in Canada (see the
Shrubs of Ontario (Soper) page: The page number in
this book where this species appears. This book is the main reference
book for shrubs in Ontario (see the
- Newcombe page: The page number in this book where this
species appears. This is the main field guide for wildflowers in eastern
North America. Although it is about wildflowers, many species of shrubs
are included (see the
- Tree or Shrub: An indication of whether this species is a
tree, shrub, subshrub, or vine.
- Native or Alien: An indication of whether this species is
usually considered to be native or non-native (alien) to Ontario.
- Status: An indication of how common or rare this species is
- Notes: Other notes about this species. Also links to other
pages on this site about this species.
After this top section there is a section with numerous photographs of
the plant's trunk, bark, leaves, flowers, fruit and seeds, and more. These
are selected to aid you in identifying the species.
At the bottom of every Species Page are links to the various lists of
species featured on this site, such as Common Names, Latin Names, and so on.